DNA is a double helix of two anti-parallel, complementary strands having a phosphate-sugar backbone with nitrogenous bases stacked inside. The monomeric building blocks of DNA are deoxyribomononucleotides usually referred to as just nucleotides , and DNA is formed from linear chains, or polymers, of these nucleotides. The components of the nucleotide used in DNA synthesis are a nitrogenous base, a deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. The nucleotide is named depending on which nitrogenous base is present. The nitrogenous base can be a purine such as adenine A and guanine G , characterized by double-ring structures, or a pyrimidine such as cytosine C and thymine T , characterized by single-ring structures.
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R-Z56 Y-DNA and Subclades - Results | FamilyTreeDNA
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The pinhole camera is one of the simplest camera that does not have a lens and only has a small hole that acts as its only aperture a literal pinhole. This small hole projects a small image to a surface that is sensitive to light. This photosensitive material is then developed to show the picture. The camera is also referred to as a camera obscura.
So how do scientists actually read the blueprints of biology, and with them build a huge proportion of modern medicine and biotechnology? It all started, more or less, with a guy named Frederick Sanger. Sanger realized he could exploit this tendency of dDNA bases to stall any chain-elongation process to see the sequence of the chain itself.